Metabolomic study of Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 and mutants
ABSTRACT: Metabolomic analysis of Wildtype, crp mutant and its five adaptively evolved populations evolved in glucose minimal media with 40 mM MOPS during its exponential phase of growth. Three biological and two technical replicate samples (n=6) were harvested for each of the strains while growing in a bioreactor aerobically at 37 degree Celsius and 700 rpm. This study aims to characterize and compare the metabolic profile of all these strains.
Project description:Metabolomic analysis of Wildtype, fnr, arcA and ihf mutants in glucose minimal media under anaerobic fermentation conditions during its exponential phase of growth. Three biological and two technical replicate samples (n=6) were harvested for each of the strains while growing in a bioreactor anaerobically at 37 degrees Celsius and 150 rpm. This study aims to characterize and compare the metabolic profiles of all these strains.
Project description:The physiological role of the various nucleoid-associated proteins in bacteria and HU in particular has been addressed in a number of studies but remains so far not fully understood. In this work, a genome-wide microarray hybridization approach, combined with in vivo genetic experimentation, has been performed in order to compare and evaluate the effect of HUalpha, HUbeta and HUalphabeta on the transcription of the Escherichia coli K12 genes as a function of growth phase. The histone-like protein HU is present in the E. coli cell under three dimeric forms (HUalphabeta, HUalpha2 and HUbeta2) in a ratio that varies with growth phase. The experimental protocol is designed to handle strain genotype and growth phase as independent variables. Keywords: genotype, growth phase Overall design: We used microarrays to investigate global bacterial gene expression in five genotypes of E. coli C600: WT (JO2057), hupA (JO2081), hupB (JO2083), hupAB (JO3020) and rpoS (MW30) at three growth growth phases: exponential, transition and stationary and in three growth media: LB, M9 minimal Glucose and M9 minimal Glycerol. The most relevant experiments were carried out in duplicate: the wild type (JO2057) and the hupAB (JO3020) strains were tested in the exponential and stationary phase, in LB. Wild type and hupAB strains were also tested in single experiments at the transition phase in LB. The single hupA (JO2081) and single hupB (JO2083) mutants were tested at the three growth phases in LB. Wild type and hupAB strains were compared in single experiments both in M9 Minimal Glucose and M9 Minimal Glycerol at the exponential and stationary phase. The last chips were used to test respectively the rpoS mutant at the at the exponential and stationary phase in LB.
Project description:Transcription profile of Escherichia coli cells in biofilms under static batch culture was compared to that of E. coli cells in planktonic cultures. Both E. coli biofilm and planktonic cultures were cultivated for 18 h in 10% Luria-Bertani broth at room temperature (20 degree Celsius). Biofilms were grown in static batch culture in petri dishes. Both planktonic culture and biofilms were homogenized and run through a separated protocol. Overall design: Two condition experiments: E. coli biofilm vs E. coli planktonic cultures. Two biological replicates with independently grown and harvested biofilms or planktonic cultures. Each biological replicate has two technical replicates of hybridization on microarray slides. Each slide has three built-in replicates for each probe.
Project description:Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) is a widely-used method for improving the fitness of microorganisms in selected environmental conditions. It has been applied previously to Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 during aerobic exponential growth on glucose minimal media, a frequently used model organism and growth condition, to probe the limits of E. coli growth rate and gain insights into fast growth phenotypes. Previous studies have described up to 1.6-fold increases in growth rate following ALE, and have identified key causal genetic mutations and changes in transcriptional patterns. Here, we report for the first time intracellular metabolic fluxes for six such adaptively evolved strains, as determined by high-resolution 13C-metabolic flux analysis. Interestingly, we found that intracellular metabolic pathway usage changed very little following adaptive evolution. Instead, at the level of central carbon metabolism the faster growth was facilitated by proportional increases in glucose uptake and all intracellular rates. Of the six evolved strains studied here, only one strain showed a small degree of flux rewiring, and this was also the strain with unique genetic mutations. A comparison of fluxes with two other wild-type (unevolved) E. coli strains, BW25113 and BL21, showed that inter-strain differences are greater than differences between the parental and evolved strains. Principal component analysis highlighted that nearly all flux differences (95%) between the nine strains were captured by only two principal components. The distance between measured and flux balance analysis predicted fluxes was also investigated. It suggested a relatively wide range of similar stoichiometric optima, which opens new questions about the path-dependency of adaptive evolution.
Project description:To elucidate the minimal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure needed for the viability of Escherichia coli, suppressor-free strains lacking either the 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid transferase waaA gene or derivatives of the heptosyltransferase I waaC deletion with lack of one or all late acyltransferases (lpxL/M/P) and/or various outer membrane biogenesis factors were constructed. Delta(waaC lpxL lpxM lpxP) and waaA mutants exhibited highly attenuated growth, whereas simultaneous deletion of waaC and surA was lethal. Analyses of LPS of suppressor-free waaA mutants grown at 21 degrees C, besides showing accumulation of free lipid IV(A) precursor, also revealed the presence of its pentaacylated and hexaacylated derivatives, indicating in vivo late acylation can occur without Kdo. In contrast, LPS of Delta(waaC lpxL lpxM lpxP) strains showed primarily Kdo(2)-lipid IV(A), indicating that these minimal LPS structures are sufficient to support growth of E. coli under slow-growth conditions at 21/23 degrees C. These lipid IV(A) derivatives could be modified biosynthetically by phosphoethanolamine, but not by 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose, indicating export defects of such minimal LPS. DeltawaaA and Delta(waaC lpxL lpxM lpxP) exhibited cell-division defects with a decrease in the levels of FtsZ and OMP-folding factor PpiD. These mutations led to strong constitutive additive induction of envelope responsive CpxR/A and sigma(E) signal transduction pathways. Delta(lpxL lpxM lpxP) mutant, with intact waaC, synthesized tetraacylated lipid A and constitutively incorporated a third Kdo in growth medium inducing synthesis of P-EtN and l-Ara4N. Overexpression of msbA restored growth of Delta(lpxL lpxM lpxP) under fast-growing conditions, but only partially that of the Delta(waaC lpxL lpxM lpxP) mutant. This suppression could be alleviated by overexpression of certain mutant msbA alleles or the single-copy chromosomal MsbA-498V variant in the vicinity of Walker-box II.
Project description:The flavodoxins are flavin mononucleotide-containing electron transferases. Flavodoxin I has been presumed to be the only flavodoxin of Escherichia coli, and its gene, fldA, is known to belong to the soxRS (superoxide response) oxidative stress regulon. An insertion mutation of fldA was constructed and was lethal under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions; only cells that also had an intact (fldA(+)) allele could carry it. A second flavodoxin, flavodoxin II, was postulated, based on the sequence of its gene, fldB. Unlike the fldA mutant, an fldB insertion mutant is a viable prototroph in the presence or absence of oxygen. A high-copy-number fldB(+) plasmid did not complement the fldA mutation. Therefore, there must be a vital function for which FldB cannot substitute for flavodoxin I. An fldB-lacZ fusion was not induced by H(2)O(2) and is therefore not a member of the oxyR regulon. However, it displayed a soxS-dependent induction by paraquat (methyl viologen), and the fldB gene is preceded by two overlapping regions that resemble known soxS binding sites. The fldB insertion mutant did not have an increased sensitivity to the effects of paraquat on either cellular viability or the expression of a soxS-lacZ fusion. Therefore, fldB is a new member of the soxRS (superoxide response) regulon, a group of genes that is induced primarily by univalent oxidants and redox cycling compounds. However, the reactions in which flavodoxin II participates and its role during oxidative stress are unknown.
Project description:Transcription profile of Escherichia coli cells in biofilms under static batch culture was compared to that of E. coli cells in planktonic cultures. Both E. coli biofilm and planktonic cultures were cultivated for 18 h in 10% Luria-Bertani broth at room temperature (20 degree Celsius). Biofilms were grown in static batch culture in petri dishes. Both planktonic culture and biofilms were homogenized and run through a separated protocol. Two condition experiments: E. coli biofilm vs E. coli planktonic cultures. Two biological replicates with independently grown and harvested biofilms or planktonic cultures. Each biological replicate has two technical replicates of hybridization on microarray slides. Each slide has three built-in replicates for each probe.
Project description:Escherichia coli has dispensable genome regions and eliminating them may improve cell use by reducing unnecessary metabolic pathways and complex regulatory networks. Although several strains with reduced genomes have already been constructed, there have been no reports of strains constructed with deletions assayed for influence on growth. To retain robust growth and fundamental metabolic pathways, the growth of each deletion strain and combination effects of deletions were checked using M9 minimal medium. Then a new strain, MGF-01, with a 1 Mb reduced genome was constructed by integrating deletions that did not affect growth. MGF-01 grew as well as the wild type in the exponential phase and continued growing after the wild type had entered the stationary phase. The final cell density of MGF-01 was 1.5 times higher than that of the wild-type strain. Using MGF-01 as a production host, a 2.4-fold increase in l-threonine production was achieved.
Project description:Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) has emerged as an effective tool for scientific discovery and addressing biotechnological needs. Much of ALE's utility is derived from reproducibly obtained fitness increases. Identifying causal genetic changes and their combinatorial effects is challenging and time-consuming. Understanding how these genetic changes enable increased fitness can be difficult. A series of approaches that address these challenges was developed and demonstrated using Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 on glucose minimal media at 37°C. By keeping E. coli in constant substrate excess and exponential growth, fitness increases up to 1.6-fold were obtained compared to the wild type. These increases are comparable to previously reported maximum growth rates in similar conditions but were obtained over a shorter time frame. Across the eight replicate ALE experiments performed, causal mutations were identified using three approaches: identifying mutations in the same gene/region across replicate experiments, sequencing strains before and after computationally determined fitness jumps, and allelic replacement coupled with targeted ALE of reconstructed strains. Three genetic regions were most often mutated: the global transcription gene rpoB, an 82-bp deletion between the metabolic pyrE gene and rph, and an IS element between the DNA structural gene hns and tdk. Model-derived classification of gene expression revealed a number of processes important for increased growth that were missed using a gene classification system alone. The methods described here represent a powerful combination of technologies to increase the speed and efficiency of ALE studies. The identified mutations can be examined as genetic parts for increasing growth rate in a desired strain and for understanding rapid growth phenotypes.
Project description:Microarray hybridization of cDNA libraries obtained from exponentially growing or heat-shocked AW1.7 or GGG10 cultures was performed to compare gene expression of these two strains. Expression of selected genes from different functional groups was quantified by quantitative PCR (q-PCR). DnaK, 30S and 50S risobomal subunits were overexpressed in E. coli GGG10 relative to E. coli AW1.7 upon heat shock at 50°C, indicating improved ribosome stability. The outer membrane porin NmpC and several transport proteins were overexpressed in exponentially growing E. coli AW1.7. Overall design: Gene expression of a heat resistant strain, E. coli AW1.7, was compared to gene expression in a heat sensitive strain, E coli GGG10. RNA was isolated from late exponential cultures, or from late exponential cells heat-shocked by exposure to 50°C for 15 min. Three independent biological repeats were analyzed, and technical repeats (dye-swap) were performed for two of three biological repeats.