Project description:Mammalian Ran-binding protein-1 (RanBP1) and its fission yeast homologue, sbp1p, are cytosolic proteins that interact with the GTP-charged form of Ran GTPase through a conserved Ran-binding domain (RBD). In vitro, this interaction can accelerate the Ran GTPase-activating protein-mediated hydrolysis of GTP on Ran and the turnover of nuclear import and export complexes. To analyze RanBP1 function in vivo, we expressed exogenous RanBP1, sbp1p, and the RBD of each in mammalian cells, in wild-type fission yeast, and in yeast whose endogenous sbp1 gene was disrupted. Mammalian cells and wild-type yeast expressing moderate levels of each protein were viable and displayed normal nuclear protein import. sbp1(-) yeast were inviable but could be rescued by all four exogenous proteins. Two RBDs of the mammalian nucleoporin RanBP2 also rescued sbp1(-) yeast. In mammalian cells, wild-type yeast, and rescued mutant yeast, exogenous full-length RanBP1 and sbp1p localized predominantly to the cytosol, whereas exogenous RBDs localized predominantly to the cell nucleus. These results suggest that only the RBD of sbp1p is required for its function in fission yeast, and that this function may not require confinement of the RBD to the cytosol. The results also indicate that the polar amino-terminal portion of sbp1p mediates cytosolic localization of the protein in both yeast and mammalian cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Optimal glucose metabolism is central to the growth and development of cells. In microbial eukaryotes, carbon catabolite repression (CCR) mediates the preferential utilization of glucose, primarily by repressing alternate carbon source utilization. In fission yeast, CCR is mediated by transcriptional repressors Scr1 and the Tup/Ssn6 complex, with the Rst2 transcription factor important for activation of gluconeogenesis and sexual differentiation genes upon derepression. Through genetic and genome-wide methods, this study aimed to comprehensively characterize CCR in fission yeast by identifying the genes and biological processes that are regulated by Scr1, Tup/Ssn6 and Rst2, the core CCR machinery. RESULTS:The transcriptional response of fission yeast to glucose-sufficient or glucose-deficient growth conditions in wild type and CCR mutant cells was determined by RNA-seq and ChIP-seq. Scr1 was found to regulate genes involved in carbon metabolism, hexose uptake, gluconeogenesis and the TCA cycle. Surprisingly, a role for Scr1 in the suppression of sexual differentiation was also identified, as homothallic scr1 deletion mutants showed ectopic meiosis in carbon and nitrogen rich conditions. ChIP-seq characterised the targets of Tup/Ssn6 and Rst2 identifying regulatory roles within and independent of CCR. Finally, a subset of genes bound by all three factors was identified, implying that regulation of certain loci may be modulated in a competitive fashion between the Scr1, Tup/Ssn6 repressors and the Rst2 activator. CONCLUSIONS:By identifying the genes directly and indirectly regulated by Scr1, Tup/Ssn6 and Rst2, this study comprehensively defined the gene regulatory networks of CCR in fission yeast and revealed the transcriptional complexities governing this system.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>HIV-1 protease (PR) is an essential viral enzyme. Its primary function is to proteolyze the viral Gag-Pol polyprotein for production of viral enzymes and structural proteins and for maturation of infectious viral particles. Increasing evidence suggests that PR cleaves host cellular proteins. However, the nature of PR-host cellular protein interactions is elusive. This study aimed to develop a fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) model system and to examine the possible interaction of HIV-1 PR with cellular proteins and its potential impact on cell proliferation and viability.<h4>Results</h4>A fission yeast strain RE294 was created that carried a single integrated copy of the PR gene in its chromosome. The PR gene was expressed using an inducible nmt1 promoter so that PR-specific effects could be measured. HIV-1 PR from this system cleaved the same indigenous viral p6/MA protein substrate as it does in natural HIV-1 infections. HIV-1 PR expression in fission yeast cells prevented cell proliferation and induced cellular oxidative stress and changes in mitochondrial morphology that led to cell death. Both these PR activities can be prevented by a PR-specific enzymatic inhibitor, indinavir, suggesting that PR-mediated proteolytic activities and cytotoxic effects resulted from enzymatic activities of HIV-1 PR. Through genome-wide screening, a serine/threonine kinase, Hhp2, was identified that suppresses HIV-1 PR-induced protease cleavage and cell death in fission yeast and in mammalian cells, where it prevented PR-induced apoptosis and cleavage of caspase-3 and caspase-8.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This is the first report to show that HIV-1 protease is functional as an enzyme in fission yeast, and that it behaves in a similar manner as it does in HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 PR-induced cell death in fission yeast could potentially be used as an endpoint for mechanistic studies, and this system could be used for developing a high-throughput system for drug screenings.
Project description:In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery is required to generate small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that mediate heterochromatic gene silencing. Efficient silencing also requires the TRAMP complex, which contains the noncanonical Cid14 poly(A) polymerase and targets aberrant RNAs for degradation. Here we use high-throughput sequencing to analyze Argonaute-associated small RNAs (sRNAs) in both the presence and absence of Cid14. Most sRNAs in fission yeast start with a 5' uracil, and we argue these are loaded most efficiently into Argonaute. In wild-type cells most sRNAs match to repeated regions of the genome, whereas in cid14Delta cells the sRNA profile changes to include major new classes of sRNAs originating from ribosomal RNAs and a tRNA. Thus, Cid14 prevents certain abundant RNAs from becoming substrates for the RNAi machinery, thereby freeing the RNAi machinery to act on its proper targets.
Project description:The ypt/rab proteins are a family of small GTP-binding proteins thought to be required for different stages of membrane traffic. From the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe we have isolated and characterized ypt5, a gene encoding a homologue of rab5, a mammalian protein apparently involved in regulating fusion of early endosomes. Recombinant ypt5 protein bound GTP. The ypt5 gene was found to be essential for viability on minimal media, but ypt5-disrupted cells grew slowly on some rich media and accumulated a population of small vesicles not observed in wild-type cells. Canine rab5 cDNA could replace the ypt5 gene in S. pombe and restore normal growth and viability. Ypt5 protein expressed in mammalian cells colocalized with the transferrin receptor to early endosomes. Thus, molecular aspects of the early endocytic pathway may be conserved between mammalian cells and S. pombe and hence may be amenable to genetic analysis.
Project description:We carried out a screen for mutants that arrest prior to premeiotic S phase. One of the strains we isolated contains a temperature-sensitive allele mutation in the fission yeast prp31(+) gene. The prp31-E1 mutant is defective in vegetative cell growth and in meiotic progression. It is synthetically lethal with prp6 and displays a pre-mRNA splicing defect at the restrictive temperature. We cloned the wild-type gene by complementation of the temperature-sensitive mutant phenotype. Prp31p is closely related to human and budding yeast PRP31 homologs and is likely to function as a general splicing factor in both vegetative growth and sexual differentiation.
Project description:Chromosome architecture undergoes extensive, programmed changes as cells enter meiosis. A highly conserved change is the clustering of telomeres at the nuclear periphery to form the "bouquet" configuration. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe the bouquet and associated nuclear movement facilitate initial interactions between homologs. We show that Bqt2, a meiosis-specific protein required for bouquet formation, is required for wild-type levels of homolog pairing and meiotic allelic recombination. Both gene conversion and crossing over are reduced and exhibit negative interference in bqt2Delta mutants, reflecting reduced homolog pairing. While both the bouquet and nuclear movement promote pairing, only the bouquet restricts ectopic recombination (that between dispersed repetitive DNA). We discuss mechanisms by which the bouquet may prevent deleterious translocations by restricting ectopic recombination.
Project description:Through a computer search of DNA databases, we have identified the homologs of the mgU6-47 snoRNA gene from the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the fly Drosophila melanogaster and human. The three box C/D-containing snoRNA genes showed no significant similarity in their sequences except for an 11 nt long complementarity to U6 snRNA, suggesting that the mechanism of snoRNA guided snRNA methylation is conserved from mammals to yeast. The corresponding snoRNAs have been positively detected by reverse transcription and northern blotting. Taking advantage of the fission yeast system, we have disrupted the yeast mgU6-47 gene and demonstrated that it is absolutely required for site-specific 2'-O-methylation of U6 at position A41. No growth differences between mgU6-47 gene-disrupted and wild-type cells were observed, suggesting that the mgU6-47 gene, as for most rRNA methylation guides, is dispensable in yeast. Nevertheless, it was revealed by temperature shift assay that abolition of A41 methylation in yeast U6 snRNA might cause a small decrease in mRNA splicing efficiency. The timing of S.pombe U6 pre-RNA transport in the nucleus for splicing and methylation was also analyzed and is described.