Project description:The human eye is built from several specialized tissues which direct, capture and pre-process information to provide vision. The gene expression of the different eye tissues has been extensively profiled with RNA-seq across numerous studies. Large consortium projects have also used RNA-seq to study gene expression patterning across many different human tissues, minus the eye. There has not been an integrated study of expression patterns from multiple eye tissues compared with other human body tissues. We have collated all publicly available healthy human eye RNA-seq datasets as well as dozens of other tissues. We use this fully integrated dataset to probe the biological processes and pan expression relationships between the cornea, retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroid complex, and the rest of the human tissues with differential expression, clustering and gene ontology term enrichment tools. We also leverage our large collection of retina and RPE-choroid tissues to build the first human weighted gene correlation networks and use them to highlight known biological pathways and eye gene disease enrichment. We also have integrated publicly available single-cell RNA-seq data from mouse retina into our framework for validation and discovery. Finally, we make all these data, analyses and visualizations available via a powerful interactive web application (https://eyeintegration.nei.nih.gov/).
Project description:Advances in sequencing have facilitated nucleotide-resolution genome-wide transcriptomic profiles across multiple mouse eye tissues. However, these RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) based eye developmental transcriptomes are not organized for easy public access, making any further analysis challenging. Here, we present a new database "Express" (http://www.iupui.edu/?sysbio/express/) that unifies various mouse lens and retina RNA-seq data and provides user-friendly visualization of the transcriptome to facilitate gene discovery in the eye. We obtained RNA-seq data encompassing 7 developmental stages of lens in addition to that on isolated lens epithelial and fibers, as well as on 11 developmental stages of retina/isolated retinal rod photoreceptor cells from publicly available wild-type mouse datasets. These datasets were pre-processed, aligned, quantified and normalized for expression levels of known and novel transcripts using a unified expression quantification framework. Express provides heatmap and browser view allowing easy navigation of the genomic organization of transcripts or gene loci. Further, it allows users to search candidate genes and export both the visualizations and the embedded data to facilitate downstream analysis. We identified total of >81,000 transcripts in the lens and >178,000 transcripts in the retina across all the included developmental stages. This analysis revealed that a significant number of the retina-expressed transcripts are novel. Expression of several transcripts in the lens and retina across multiple developmental stages was independently validated by RT-qPCR for established genes such as Pax6 and Lhx2 as well as for new candidates such as Elavl4, Rbm5, Pabpc1, Tia1 and Tubb2b. Thus, Express serves as an effective portal for analyzing pruned RNA-seq expression datasets presently collected for the lens and retina. It will allow a wild-type context for the detailed analysis of targeted gene-knockout mouse ocular defect models and facilitate the prioritization of candidate genes from Exome-seq data of eye disease patients.
Project description:Purpose:We develop an accessible and reliable RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) transcriptome database of healthy human eye tissues and a matching reactive web application to query gene expression in eye and body tissues. Methods:We downloaded the raw sequence data for 1375 RNA-seq samples across 54 tissues in the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project as a noneye reference set. We then queried several public repositories to find all healthy, nonperturbed, human eye-related tissue RNA-seq samples. The 916 eye and 1375 GTEx samples were sent into a Snakemake-based reproducible pipeline we wrote to quantify all known transcripts and genes, removes samples with poor sequence quality and mislabels, normalizes expression values across each tissue, perform 882 differential expression tests, calculate GO term enrichment, and output all as a single SQLite database file: the Eye in a Disk (EiaD) dataset. Furthermore, we rewrote the web application eyeIntegration (available in the public domain at https://eyeIntegration.nei.nih.gov) to display EiaD. Results:The new eyeIntegration portal provides quick visualization of human eye-related transcriptomes published to date by database version, gene/transcript, 19 eye tissues, and 54 body tissues. As a test of the value of this unified pan-eye dataset, we showed that fetal and organoid retina are highly similar at a pan-transcriptome level, but display distinct differences in certain pathways and gene families, such as protocadherin and HOXB family members. Conclusions:The eyeIntegration v1.0 web app serves the pan-human eye and body transcriptome dataset, EiaD. This offers the eye community a powerful and quick means to test hypotheses on human gene and transcript expression across 54 body and 19 eye tissues.
Project description:The mutations in patients with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (xlRP) have not been well described in the Chinese population. In the present study, a five-generation Chinese retinitis pigmentosa (RP) family was recruited; targeted next-generation sequencing (TGS) was used to identify causative genes and Sanger sequencing for co-segregation. RNA-seq data analysis and revere transcriptional-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were applied to investigate gene expression patterns of RP GTPase regulator (RPGR) in human and Rpgr in mouse. A novel, hemizygous, deleterious and missense variant: c.G644A (p.G215E) in the RPGR gene (NM_000328.2) exon 7 of X-chromosome was identified in the proband, which was co-segregated with the clinical phenotypes in this family. RNA-seq data showed that RPGR is ubiquitously expressed in 27 human tissues with testis in highest, but no eye tissues data. Then the expressions for Rpgr mRNA in mice including eye tissues were conducted and showed that Rpgr transcript is ubiquitously expressed very highly in retina and testis, and highly in other eye tissues including lens, sclera, and cornea; and expressed highly in the six different developmental times of retinal tissue. Ubiquitous expression in different tissues from eye and very high expression in the retina indicated that RPGR plays a vital role in eye functions, particularly in retina. In conclusion, our study is the first to indicate that the novel missense variant c.G644A (p.G215E) in the RPGR gene might be the disease-causing mutation in this xlRP family, expanding mutation spectrum. These findings facilitate better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this disease; provide new insights for genetic counseling and healthcare.
Project description:This experiment contains the subset of data corresponding to mouse RNA-Seq data from experiment E-GEOD-30352 (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/experiments/E-GEOD-30352/), which goal is to understand the dynamics of mammalian transcriptome evolution. To study mammalian transcriptome evolution at high resolution, we generated RNA-Seq data (?3.2 billion Illumina Genome Analyser IIx reads of 76 base pairs) for the polyadenylated RNA fraction of brain (cerebral cortex or whole brain without cerebellum), cerebellum, heart, kidney, liver and testis (usually from one male and one female per somatic tissue and two males for testis) from nine mammalian species: placental mammals (great apes, including humans; rhesus macaque; mouse), marsupials (gray short-tailed opossum) and monotremes (platypus). Corresponding data (?0.3 billion reads) were generated for a bird (red jungle fowl, a non-domesticated chicken) and used as an evolutionary outgroup.
Project description:The dataset contains 72 RNA-seq samples obtained from adult (P150) C57BL/6JCrl mice. Samples are from total heart, liver and kidney tissue. Four different genotypes are included in the data: 1) wild type, 2) transgenic Ciona intestinalis AOX in Rosa26 locus (Szibor et al. 2017, DOI: 10.1242/dmm.027839), 3) respiratory chain complex III deficient Bcs1lp.S78G knock-in mice (a GRACILE syndrome patient mutation, Leveen et al. 2011, DOI: 10.1002/hep.24031) and 4) a cross between the AOX transgenic and Bcs1lp.S78G mice (Rajendran et al. EMBO Mol Med. In press).
Project description:Copy number variation is an important dimension of genetic diversity and has implications in development and disease. As an important model organism, the mouse is a prime candidate for copy number variant (CNV) characterization, but this has yet to be completed for a large sample size. Here we report CNV analysis of publicly available, high-density microarray data files for 351 mouse tail samples, including 290 mice that had not been characterized for CNVs previously.We found 9634 putative autosomal CNVs across the samples affecting 6.87% of the mouse reference genome. We find significant differences in the degree of CNV uniqueness (single sample occurrence) and the nature of CNV-gene overlap between wild-caught mice and classical laboratory strains. CNV-gene overlap was associated with lipid metabolism, pheromone response and olfaction compared to immunity, carbohydrate metabolism and amino-acid metabolism for wild-caught mice and classical laboratory strains, respectively. Using two subspecies of wild-caught Mus musculus, we identified putative CNVs unique to those subspecies and show this diversity is better captured by wild-derived laboratory strains than by the classical laboratory strains. A total of 9 genic copy number variable regions (CNVRs) were selected for experimental confirmation by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR).The analysis we present is a comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of CNVs in Mus musculus, which increases the number of known variants in the species and will accelerate the identification of novel variants in future studies.