An integrated omics approach reveals synaptic plasticity changes in an APP/PS1 Alzheimer´s mouse model
ABSTRACT: Synaptic dysfunction occurs early in Alzheimer´s disease. However, efforts to protect against these detriments have not been possible due to the inadequate understanding of synaptic signalling pathways involved in the neuropathological disease process. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind Alzheimer´s and synaptic plasticity-related signalling using a multi-omics and in situ imaging approach. We used an Alzheimer´s mouse model (APPswe/PSN1dE9, age of 12 month) (APP/PS1) and compared the changes on the proteome including global phosphorylation and N-linked glycosylation pattern, pathway-focused transcriptome and neurological disease-associated miRNAome with age-matched control mice in the neocortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb and brainstem. Our analysis showed that signalling pathways related to synaptic functions associated to dendritic spine morphology, neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiaiton, CREB signalling and cytoskeletal dynamics were altered in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice, particular in the neocortex and olfactory bulb. This was associated with Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangle formation as well as microglial clustering in all brain regions except brainstem. The responses may be epigenetically modulated by the interaction with a number of miRNAs. We suggest that the alterations in synaptic plasticity-related signalling are associated to neurocognitive dysfunctions that resemble the situtation in human AD patients.
Project description:To assess the consequences of locus ceruleus (LC) degeneration and subsequent noradrenaline (NA) deficiency in early Alzheimer's disease (AD), mice overexpressing mutant amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 (APP/PS1) were crossed with Ear2(-/-) mice that have a severe loss of LC neurons projecting to the hippocampus and neocortex. Testing spatial memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation revealed an impairment in APP/PS1 Ear2(-/-) mice, whereas APP/PS1 or Ear2(-/-) mice showed only minor changes. These deficits were associated with distinct synaptic changes including reduced expression of the NMDA 2A subunit and increased levels of NMDA receptor 2B in APP/PS1 Ear2(-/-) mice. Acute pharmacological replacement of NA by L-threo-DOPS partially restored phosphorylation of ?-CaMKII and spatial memory performance in APP/PS1 Ear2(-/-) mice. These changes were not accompanied by altered APP processing or amyloid ? peptide (A?) deposition. Thus, early LC degeneration and subsequent NA reduction may contribute to cognitive deficits via CaMKII and NMDA receptor dysfunction independent of A? and suggests that NA supplementation could be beneficial in treating AD.
Project description:Increasing evidence emphasizes the protective role of Eph receptors in synaptic function in the pathological development of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, their roles in the regulation of hippocampal astrocytes remain largely unknown. Here, we directly investigated the function of astroglial EphB2 on synaptic plasticity in APP/PS1 mice. Using cell isolation and transgene technologies, we first isolated hippocampal astrocytes and evaluated the expression levels of ephrinB ligands and EphB receptors. Then, we stereotaxically injected EphB2-Flox-AAV into the hippocampus of GFAP-cre/APP/PS1 mice and further evaluated hippocampal synaptic plasticity and astroglial function. Interestingly, astrocytic EphB2 expression was significantly increased in APP/PS1 mice in contrast to its expression profile in neurons. Moreover, depressing this astroglial EphB2 upregulation enhanced hippocampal synaptic plasticity, which results from harmful D-serine release. These results provide evidence of the different expression profiles and function of EphB2 between astrocytes and neurons in AD pathology.
Project description:Lineage regulates the synaptic connections between neurons in some regions of the invertebrate nervous system. In mammals, recent experiments suggest that cell lineage determines the connectivity of pyramidal neurons in the neocortex, but the functional relevance of this phenomenon and whether it occurs in other neuronal types remains controversial. We investigated whether lineage plays a role in the connectivity of mitral and tufted cells, the projection neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb. We used transgenic mice to sparsely label neuronal progenitors and observed that clonally related neurons receive synaptic input from olfactory sensory neurons expressing different olfactory receptors. These results indicate that lineage does not determine the connectivity between olfactory sensory neurons and olfactory bulb projection neurons.
Project description:The lemon essential oil (LEO), extracted from the fruit of lemon, has been used to treat multiple pathological diseases, such as diabetes, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, depression and hepatobiliary dysfunction. The study was designed to study the effects of LEO on cognitive dysfunction induced by Alzheimer's disease (AD). We used APP/PS1 double transgene (APP/PS1) AD mice in the experiment; these mice exhibit significant deficits in synaptic density and hippocampal-dependent spatial related memory. The effects of LEO on learning and memory were examined using the Morris Water Maze (MWM) test, Novel object recognition test, and correlative indicators, including a neurotransmitter (acetylcholinesterase, AChE), a nerve growth factor (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF), a postsynaptic marker (PSD95), and presynaptic markers (synapsin-1, and synaptophysin), in APP/PS1 mice. Histopathology was performed to estimate the effects of LEO on AD mice. A significantly lowered brain AChE depression in APP/PS1 and wild-type C57BL/6L (WT) mice. PSD95/ Synaptophysin, the index of synaptic density, was noticeably improved in histopathologic changes. Hence, it can be summarized that memory-enhancing activity might be associated with a reduction in the AChE levels and is elevated by BDNF, PSD95, and synaptophysin through enhancing synaptic plasticity.
Project description:Olfaction is often deregulated in Alzheimer´s disease (AD) patients, being also impaired in transgenic Tg2576 AD mouse model, which overexpress the Swedish mutated form of human amyloid precursor protein (APP). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that accompany the neurodegeneration of olfactory structures in Tg2576 mice. For that, we have applied proteome- and transcriptome-wide approaches to probe molecular disturbances in the olfactory bulb (OB) dissected from aged Tg2576 mice (18 months of age) respect to age matched wild-type (WT) littermates. Overall design: Olfactory bulbs from 3 WT mice vs olfactory bulbs from 3 Tg2576 transgenic mice
Project description:The coincidences between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are so compelling that it is attractive to speculate that diabetic conditions might aggravate AD pathologies by calcium dysfunction, although the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved remains elusive. The present work was undertaken to investigate whether calcium dyshomeostasis is associated with the exacerbated Alzheimer-like cognitive dysfunction observed in diabetic conditions in APP/PS1-ob/ob mice, which were generated by crossing ob/ob mice with APP/PS1 mice. We confirmed that the diabetic condition can aggravate not only Aβ deposition but also tau phosphorylation, synaptic loss, neuronal death, and inflammation, exacerbating cognitive impairment in AD mice. More importantly, we found that the diabetic condition dramatically elevated calcium levels in APP/PS1 mice, thereby stimulating the phosphorylation of the calcium-dependent kinases. Our findings suggest that controlling over-elevation of intracellular calcium may provide novel insights for approaching AD in diabetic patients and delaying AD progression.
Project description:Calpains are calcium-dependent enzymes that determine the fate of proteins through regulated proteolytic activity. Calpains have been linked to the modulation of memory and are key to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). When abnormally activated, calpains can also initiate degradation of proteins essential for neuronal survival. Here we show that calpain inhibition through E64, a cysteine protease inhibitor, and the highly specific calpain inhibitor BDA-410 restored normal synaptic function both in hippocampal cultures and in hippocampal slices from the APP/PS1 mouse, an animal model of AD. Calpain inhibition also improved spatial-working memory and associative fear memory in APP/PS1 mice. These beneficial effects of the calpain inhibitors were associated with restoration of normal phosphorylation levels of the transcription factor CREB and involved redistribution of the synaptic protein synapsin I. Thus, calpain inhibition may prove useful in the alleviation of memory loss in AD.
Project description:The EphA5 receptor tyrosine kinase plays key roles in axon guidance during development. However, the presence of EphA5 protein in the nervous system has not been fully characterized. To examine EphA5 localization better, mutant mice, in which the EphA5 cytoplasmic domain was replaced with beta-galactosidase, were analyzed for both temporal and regional changes in the distribution of EphA5 protein in the developing and adult nervous system. During embryonic development, high levels of EphA5 protein were found in the retina, olfactory bulb, cerebral neocortex, hippocampus, pretectum, tectum, cranial nerve nuclei, and spinal cord. Variations in intensity were observed as development proceeded. Staining of pretectal nuclei, tectal nuclei, and other areas of the mesencephalon became more diffuse after maturity, whereas the cerebral neocortex gained more robust intensity. In the adult, receptor protein continued to be detected in many areas including the olfactory nuclei, neocortex, piriform cortex, induseum griseum, hippocampus, thalamus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and septum. In addition, EphA5 protein was found in the claustrum, stria terminalis, barrel cortex, and striatal patches, and along discrete axon tracts within the corpus callosum of the adult. We conclude that EphA5 function is not limited to the developing mouse brain and may play a role in synaptic plasticity in the adult.
Project description:11C-UCB-J is a new PET tracer for synaptic density imaging. Recently, we conducted 11C-UCB-J PET on patients with mild cognitive impairment or early Alzheimer disease (AD) and found a 41% decrease in specific binding in the hippocampus compared with healthy subjects. We hypothesized that 11C-UCB-J may have potential to be a general biomarker for evaluating AD treatment effects via monitoring of synaptic density changes. In this study, we performed longitudinal 11C-UCB-J PET on AD mice to measure the treatment effects of saracatinib, which previously demonstrated synaptic changes with postmortem methods. Methods: Nine wild-type (WT) mice and 9 amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 double-transgenic (APPswe/PS1?E9 [APP/PS1]) mice underwent 3 11C-UCB-J PET measurements: at baseline, after treatment, and during drug washout. After baseline measurements, saracatinib, a Fyn kinase inhibitor currently in clinical development for AD treatment, was administered by oral gavage for 41 ± 11 d. Treatment-phase measurements were performed on the last day of treatment, and washout-phase measurements occurred more than 27 d after the end of treatment. SUVs from 30 to 60 min after injection of 11C-UCB-J were calculated and normalized by the whole-brain (WB) or brain stem (BS) average values as SUV ratio (SUVR(WB) or SUVR-1(BS)). Results: Hippocampal SUVR(WB) at baseline was significantly lower in APP/PS1 than WT mice (APP/PS1: 1.11 ± 0.04, WT: 1.15 ± 0.02, P = 0.033, unpaired t test). Using SUVR-1(BS) in the hippocampus, there was also a significant difference at baseline (APP/PS1: 0.48 ± 0.13, WT: 0.65 ± 0.10, P = 0.017, unpaired t test). After treatment with saracatinib, hippocampal SUVR(WB) in APP/PS1 mice was significantly increased (P = 0.037, paired t test). A trend-level treatment effect was seen with hippocampal SUVR-1(BS). Saracatinib treatment effects may persist, as there were no significant differences between WT and APP/PS1 mice after drug washout. Conclusion: On the basis of the 11C-UCB-J PET results, hippocampal synaptic density was lower in APP/PS1 mice than in WT mice at baseline, and this deficit was normalized by treatment with saracatinib. These results support the use of 11C-UCB-J PET to identify disease-specific synaptic deficits and to monitor treatment effects in AD.
Project description:It is well known that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory deficits and cognitive decline. Amyloid-? (A?) deposition and synaptic dysfunction play important roles in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Huatuo Zaizao pill (HT) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) that has been used clinically for many years in China, mainly for post-stroke rehabilitation and cognitive decline; however, the mechanism of cognitive function is not clear. In this study, we investigated the effect of HT on hippocampal synaptic function, Amyloid-? (A?) deposition in APP/PS1 AD transgenic mice.Six-month-old APP/PS1 transgenic (Tg) mice were randomly divided into control, HT-treated, and memantine (MEM)-treated groups. Then, these groups were orally administered vehicle (for the control), HT (0.25 g/kg) and MEM (5 mg/kg) respectively for 4 weeks. The Morris water maze, Novel Object Recognition, and Open field tests were used to assess cognitive behavioral changes. We evaluated the effects of HT on neuronal excitability, membrane ion channel activity, and synaptic plasticity in acute hippocampal slices by combining electrophysiological extracellular tests. Synaptic morphology in the hippocampus was investigated by electron microscopy. Western blotting was used to assess synaptic-associated protein and A? production and degrading levels. Immunofluorescence staining was used to determine the relative integrated density.HT can ameliorate hippocampus-dependent memory deficits and improve synaptic dysfunction by reversing LTP impairment in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Moreover, HT reduces amyloid plaque deposition by regulating ?-secretase and ?-secretase levels.HT can improve the learning and memory function of APP/PS1 transgenic mice by improving synaptic function and reducing amyloid plaque deposition.