ABSTRACT: Human filamin C (FLNc) is a target of the protease calpain at Y2625. To confirm the dependency of calpain cleavage from FLNc phosphorylation at position S2623/S2624 by PKCa, FLNc was overexpressed in HEK293 cells and cells were treated with PMA to stimulated kinase activity, with Gö6976 to inhibit kinase activity or mock-treated with DMSO. Subsequently, recombinant calpain-1 and GluC were used and the resulting peptide TVTSSSSRGSSY was monitored by SRM analyses.
Project description:Human filamin C (FLNc) is a target of the protease calpain at Y2625. To confirm the dependency of calpain cleavage from FLNc phosphorylation at position S2623/S2624 by PKCa, FLNc was overexpressed in HEK293 cells and cells were treated with PMA to stimulated kinase activity, with Gö6976 to inhibit kinase activity or mock-treated with DMSO. Subsequently, recombinant calpain-1 and GluC were used and the resulting peptide TVTSSSSRGSSY was monitored by SRM analyses.
Project description:The Z-disc is a protein-rich structure critically important for myofibril development and integrity. Since a role of the Z-disc for signal integration and transduction was recently suggested, its precise phosphorylation landscape warranted in-depth analysis. We therefore established a site-resolved protein phosphorylation map of the Z-disc in skeletal myocytes and found that it is a phosphorylation hotspot in living cells, underscoring its functions in signalling and disease-related processes. In an exemplary fashion, we analysed the actin-binding multi-adaptor protein filamin C (FLNc), which is essential for Z-disc assembly and maintenance, and found that PKC phosphorylation at distinct serine residues in its hinge 2 region prevents its cleavage at an adjacent tyrosine residue by calpain 1. With this quantitative in vivo kinase assay, we show that the phosphorylation site S2625 in mouse FLNc is significantly down-regulated upon treatment of C2C12 myotubes with the PKCα inhibitor Gö6976.
Project description:Skeletal muscle is known to adapt dynamically to changes in workload by regulatory processes of the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. We performed a global quantitative phosphoproteomics analysis of contracting mouse C2 myotubes treated with insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1) or LY294002 to activate or inhibit PI3K/Akt signaling, respectively. Among the significantly regulated phosphopeptides we identified the novel extended basophilic motif RxRxxp[S/T]xxp[S] to be enriched in the set of down-regulated phosphopeptides following inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling. Using literature-based text mining we identified the kinases Akt, serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) and p70S6 kinase to be potentially involved in the phosphorylation of the first serine in the RxRxxp[S/T]xxp[S] motif, whereas no kinase targeting the serine in the +3 position was revealed. In the signaling adapter protein filamin c (FLNc) we found this novel motif in immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain 20 which is involved in various protein interactions. Through in vitro and in cellulo kinase assays we identified Akt and protein kinase C alpha as the responsible kinases phosphorylating FLNc in this motif at the first and the second serine, respectively.
Project description:FLNc, the muscle-specific isoform of the filamin family, is a multi-adaptor protein, comprising 1 amino-terminal actin-binding (ABD) domain followed by 24 immunoglobulin-like (Ig) domains. While FLNc can form homodimers via the last Ig-like domain and thus function as an actin-crosslinker like the other filamins, it features a unique insertion of 82 amino acids (aa) in domain 20. This insert was not only shown to mediate the interaction to several FLNc binding partners, but also to contain an Akt-mediated phosphorylation site at S2234 of mouse FLNc (mFLNc). To reveal novel proteins in the nano-environment of FLNc within myotubes under mild electrical pulse stimulation conditions, we applied a quantitative BioID appraoch.
Project description:Filamin C (FLNC), being one of the major actin-binding proteins, is involved in the maintenance of key muscle cell functions. Inherited skeletal muscle and cardiac disorders linked to genetic variants in <i>FLNC</i> have attracted attention because of their high clinical importance and possibility of genotype-phenotype correlations. To further expand on the role of FLNC in muscle cells, we focused on detailed alterations of muscle cell properties developed after the loss of FLNC. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 method we generated a C2C12 murine myoblast cell line with stably suppressed <i>Flnc</i> expression. FLNC-deficient myoblasts have a significantly higher proliferation rate combined with an impaired cell migration capacity. The suppression of <i>Flnc</i> expression leads to inability to complete myogenic differentiation, diminished expression of <i>Myh1</i> and <i>Myh4</i>, alteration of transcriptional dynamics of myogenic factors, such as <i>Mymk</i> and <i>Myog</i>, and deregulation of Hippo signaling pathway. Specifically, we identified elevated basal levels of Hippo activity in myoblasts with loss of FLNC, and ineffective reduction of Hippo signaling activity during myogenic differentiation. The latter was restored by <i>Flnc</i> overexpression. In summary, we confirmed the role of FLNC in muscle cell proliferation, migration and differentiation, and demonstrated for the first time the direct link between <i>Flnc</i> expression and activity of TEAD-YAP\TAZ signaling. These findings support a role of FLNC in regulation of essential muscle processes relying on mechanical as well as signaling mechanisms.
Project description:Filamin C (FLNC) variants are associated with cardiac and muscular phenotypes. Originally, FLNC variants were described in myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) patients. Later, high-throughput screening in cardiomyopathy cohorts determined a prominent role for FLNC in isolated hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies (HCM and DCM). FLNC variants are now among the more prevalent causes of genetic DCM. FLNC-associated DCM is associated with a malignant clinical course and a high risk of sudden cardiac death. The clinical spectrum of FLNC suggests different pathomechanisms related to variant types and their location in the gene. The appropriate functioning of FLNC is crucial for structural integrity and cell signaling of the sarcomere. The secondary protein structure of FLNC is critical to ensure this function. Truncating variants with subsequent haploinsufficiency are associated with DCM and cardiac arrhythmias. Interference with the dimerization and folding of the protein leads to aggregate formation detrimental for muscle function, as found in HCM and MFM. Variants associated with HCM are predominantly missense variants, which cluster in the ROD2 domain. This domain is important for binding to the sarcomere and to ensure appropriate cell signaling. We here review FLNC genotype-phenotype correlations based on available evidence.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To determine whether a new indel mutation in the dimerization domain of filamin C (FLNc) causes a hereditary myopathy with protein aggregation in muscle fibers, we clinically and molecularly studied a German family with autosomal dominant myofibrillar myopathy (MFM).<h4>Methods</h4>We performed mutational analysis in 3 generations, muscle histopathology, and proteomic studies of IM protein aggregates. Functional consequences of the <i>FLNC</i> mutation were investigated with interaction and transfection studies and biophysics molecular analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Eight patients revealed clinical features of slowly progressive proximal weakness associated with a heterozygous c.8025_8030delCAAGACinsA (p.K2676Pfs*3) mutation in <i>FLNC</i>. Two patients exhibited a mild cardiomyopathy. MRI of skeletal muscle revealed lipomatous changes typical for MFM with <i>FLNC</i> mutations. Muscle biopsies showed characteristic MFM findings with protein aggregation and lesion formation. The proteomic profile of aggregates was specific for MFM-filaminopathy and indicated activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagic pathways. Functional studies revealed that mutant FLNc is misfolded, unstable, and incapable of forming homodimers and heterodimers with wild-type FLNc.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This new MFM-filaminopathy family confirms that expression of mutant <i>FLNC</i> leads to an adult-onset muscle phenotype with intracellular protein accumulation. Mutant FLNc protein is biochemically compromised and leads to dysregulation of protein quality control mechanisms. Proteomic analysis of MFM protein aggregates is a potent method to identify disease-relevant proteins, differentiate MFM subtypes, evaluate the relevance of gene variants, and identify novel MFM candidate genes.
Project description:Filamin C (FLNC) is one of three filamin proteins (Filamin A (FLNA), Filamin B (FLNB), and FLNC) that cross-link actin filaments and interact with numerous binding partners. FLNC consists of a N-terminal actin-binding domain followed by 24 immunoglobulin-like repeats with two intervening calpain-sensitive hinges separating R15 and R16 (hinge 1) and R23 and R24 (hinge-2). The FLNC subunit is dimerized through R24 and calpain cleaves off the dimerization domain to regulate mobility of the FLNC subunit. FLNC is localized in the Z-disc due to the unique insertion of 82 amino acid residues in repeat 20 and necessary for normal Z-disc formation that connect sarcomeres. Since phosphorylation of FLNC by PKC diminishes the calpain sensitivity, assembly, and disassembly of the Z-disc may be regulated by phosphorylation of FLNC. Mutations of FLNC result in cardiomyopathy and muscle weakness. Although this review will focus on the current understanding of FLNC structure and functions in muscle, we will also discuss other filamins because they share high sequence similarity and are better characterized. We will also discuss a possible role of FLNC as a mechanosensor during muscle contraction.
Project description:FilaminC (FLNc) is the muscle-specific member of a family of actin binding proteins. Although it interacts with many proteins involved in muscular dystrophies, its unique role in muscle is poorly understood. To address this, two models were developed. First, FLNc expression was stably reduced in C2C12 myoblasts by RNA interference. While these cells start differentiation normally, they display defects in differentiation and fusion ability and ultimately form multinucleated "myoballs" rather than maintain elongated morphology. Second, a mouse model carrying a deletion of last 8 exons of Flnc was developed. FLNc-deficient mice die shortly after birth, due to respiratory failure, and have severely reduced birth weights, with fewer muscle fibers and primary myotubes, indicating defects in primary myogenesis. They exhibit variation in fiber size, fibers with centrally located nuclei, and some rounded fibers resembling the in vitro phenotype. The similarity of the phenotype of FLNc-deficient mice to the filamin-interacting TRIO null mice was further confirmed by comparing FLNc-deficient C2C12 cells to TRIO-deficient cells. These data provide the first evidence that FLNc has a crucial role in muscle development and maintenance of muscle structural integrity and suggest the presence of a TRIO-FLNc-dependent pathway in maintaining proper myotube structure.