Dataset Information


Responses of S. aureus to stress caused by sublethal concentration of cationic antimicrobial peptides

ABSTRACT: Understanding how pathogens respond to antimicrobial peptides, and how this compares to currently available antibiotics, is crucial to optimizing antibiotic therapy. Staphylococcus aureus has several known resistance mechanisms against human cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs). We aim to determine how S. aureus responds to sheep and frog CAMPs, and whether this response is associated with resistance. Gene expression changes in Staphylococcus aureus Newman cells exposed to linear CAMPs were analyzed by DNA microarray. Three antimicrobial peptides were used in the analysis, two of them are derived from frog, temporin L and dermaseptin K4-S4(1-16), one is from sheep, ovispirin-1. The peptides induced the VraSR cell-wall regulon and several other genes which are also upregulated in cells treated with vancomycin and other cell wall-active antibiotics. In addition to this similarity, three genes/operons were particularly strongly induced by the peptides: vraDE, SA0205 and SAS016, encoding an ABC transporter, a putative membrane-bound lysostaphin-like peptidase and a small functionally unknown protein, respectively. Ovispirin-1 and dermaseptin K4-S4(1-16), which disrupt lipid bilayers by the carpet mechanism, were strong inducers of the vraDE operon. We show that high level induction by ovispirin-1 was dependent on the amide modification of the peptide C-terminus. This suggests that the amide group has a crucial role in the activation of the Aps sensory system, the regulator of vraDE. In contrast, temporin L, which disrupts lipid bilayers by forming pores, was clearly a weaker inducer of vraDE despite the C-terminal amide modification. Sensitivity testing with CAMPs and other antimicrobials suggested that VraDE is a transporter dedicated to resist bacitracin. We also showed that SA0205 belongs to the VraSR regulon. Furthermore, VraSR was shown to be important for resistance against a wide range of cell wall-active antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents including the amide-modified ovispirin-1, bacitracin, teicoplanin, cefotaxime and 10 other β-lactam antibiotics, chlorpromazine, thioridazine and EGTA.

ORGANISM(S): Staphylococcus aureus

PROVIDER: GSE15800 | GEO | 2010/03/02



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