Comparative microarray between normal and essential thrombocythemia platelets
ABSTRACT: Human blood platelets have important, regulatory functions in diverse hemostatic and pathological disorders, including vascular remodeling, inflammation, and wound repair. Microarray analysis was used to study the molecular basis of essential thrombocythemia, a myeloproliferative disorder with quantitative and qualitative platelet defects associated with cardiovascular and thrombohemorrhagic symptoms, not infrequently neurological. A platelet-expressed gene (HSD17B3) encoding type 3 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (previously characterized as a testis-specific enzyme catalyzing the final step in gonadal synthesis of testosterone) was selectively down-regulated in ET platelets, with reciprocal induction of the type 12 enzyme (HSD17B12). Functional 17beta-HSD3 activity corresponding to approximately 10% of that found in murine testis was demonstrated in normal platelets. The induction of HSD17B12 in ET platelets was unassociated with a concomitant increase in androgen biosynthesis, suggesting distinct functions and/or substrate specificities of the types 3 and 12 enzymes. Application of a molecular assay distinguished ET from normal platelets in 20 consecutive patients (p < 0.0001). These data provide the first evidence that distinct subtypes of steroidogenic 17beta-HSDs are functionally present in human blood platelets, and that the expression patterns of HSD17B3 and HSD17B12 are associated with an uncommon platelet disorder manifest by quantitative and qualitative platelet defects. Keywords: other
INSTRUMENT(S): [HG-U133A] Affymetrix Human Genome U133A Array
Project description:Human blood platelets have important, regulatory functions in diverse hemostatic and pathological disorders, including vascular remodeling, inflammation, and wound repair. Microarray analysis was used to study the molecular basis of essential thrombocythemia, a myeloproliferative disorder with quantitative and qualitative platelet defects associated with cardiovascular and thrombohemorrhagic symptoms, not infrequently neurological. A platelet-expressed gene (HSD17B3) encoding type 3 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (previously characterized as a testis-specific enzyme catalyzing the final step in gonadal synthesis of testosterone) was selectively down-regulated in ET platelets, with reciprocal induction of the type 12 enzyme (HSD17B12). Functional 17beta-HSD3 activity corresponding to approximately 10% of that found in murine testis was demonstrated in normal platelets. The induction of HSD17B12 in ET platelets was unassociated with a concomitant increase in androgen biosynthesis, suggesting distinct functions and/or substrate specificities of the types 3 and 12 enzymes. Application of a molecular assay distinguished ET from normal platelets in 20 consecutive patients (p < 0.0001). These data provide the first evidence that distinct subtypes of steroidogenic 17beta-HSDs are functionally present in human blood platelets, and that the expression patterns of HSD17B3 and HSD17B12 are associated with an uncommon platelet disorder manifest by quantitative and qualitative platelet defects.
Project description:Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is comprised among chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) and is caused by driver mutations in JAK2, CALR, and MPL, which lead to megakaryocyte proliferation and prominent thrombocytosis. Thrombosis remains the main cause of morbidity in ET and is driven by the interplay between blood cells, the endothelium, the clotting cascade, and host-derived inflammatory mediators. Platelet activation plays a key role in the thrombotic predisposition, although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. In addition to their role in hemostasis, platelets participate in innate immunity and inflammation owing to the expression of toll-like receptors (TLR), which recognize inflammatory signals, triggering platelet functional responses. Considering the impact of inflammation on ET procoagulant state, we assessed the contribution of TLR2 and TLR4 to platelet hemostatic and inflammatory properties in ET patients, by using Pam3CSK4 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as specific TLR2 and TLR4 ligands, respectively. TLR2 ligation induced increased surface translocation of ?-granule-derived P-selectin and CD40L, which mediate platelet interaction with leukocytes and endothelial cells, respectively, and higher levels of dense granule-derived CD63 in patients, whereas PAC-1 binding was not increased and LPS had no effect on these platelet responses. Platelet-neutrophil aggregate formation was elevated in ET at baseline and after stimulation of both TLR2 and TLR4. In addition, ET patients displayed higher TLR2- and TLR4-triggered platelet secretion of the chemokine RANTES (CCL5), whereas von Willebrand factor release was not enhanced, revealing a differential releasate pattern for ?-granule-stored inflammatory molecules. TLR-mediated hyperresponsiveness contrasted with impaired or preserved responses to classic platelet hemostatic agonists, such as TRAP-6 and thrombin. TLR2 and TLR4 expression on the platelet surface was normal, whereas phosphorylation of downstream effector ERK1/2 was higher in patients at baseline and after incubation with Pam3CSK4, which may partly explain the enhanced TLR2 response. In conclusion, exacerbated response to TLR stimulation may promote platelet activation in ET, boosting platelet/leukocyte/endothelial interactions and secretion of inflammatory mediators, overall reinforcing the thromboinflammatory state. These findings highlight the role of platelets as inflammatory sentinels in MPN prothrombotic scenario and provide additional evidence for the close intertwining between thrombosis and inflammation in this setting.
Project description:Essentials Platelet packing density in a hemostatic plug limits molecular movement to diffusion. A diffusion-dependent steep thrombin gradient forms radiating outwards from the injury site. Clot retraction affects the steepness of the gradient by increasing platelet packing density. Together, these effects promote hemostatic plug core formation and inhibit unnecessary growth. SUMMARY:Background Hemostasis studies performed in vivo have shown that hemostatic plugs formed after penetrating injuries are characterized by a core of highly activated, densely packed platelets near the injury site, covered by a shell of less activated and loosely packed platelets. Thrombin production occurs near the injury site, further activating platelets and starting the process of platelet mass retraction. Tightening of interplatelet gaps may then prevent the escape and exchange of solutes. Objectives To reconstruct the hemostatic plug macro- and micro-architecture and examine how platelet mass contraction regulates solute transport and solute concentration in the gaps between platelets. Methods Our approach consisted of three parts. First, platelet aggregates formed in vitro under flow were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy to extract data on porosity and gap size distribution. Second, a three-dimensional (3-D) model was constructed with features matching the platelet aggregates formed in vitro. Finally, the 3-D model was integrated with volume and morphology measurements of hemostatic plugs formed in vivo to determine how solutes move within the platelet plug microenvironment. Results The results show that the hemostatic mass is characterized by extremely narrow gaps, porosity values even smaller than previously estimated and stagnant plasma velocity. Importantly, the concentration of a chemical species released within the platelet mass increases as the gaps between platelets shrink. Conclusions Platelet mass retraction provides a physical mechanism to establish steep chemical concentration gradients that determine the extent of platelet activation and account for the core-and-shell architecture observed in vivo.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Refrigeration-induced binding of VWF (von Willebrand factor) to platelets contributes to the rapid clearance of refrigerated platelets. In this study, we investigate whether inhibiting VWF binding by a DNA-based aptamer ameliorates the clearance of refrigerated platelets without significantly impeding hemostatic functions. Approach and Results: Platelets were refrigerated with or without aptamer ARC1779 for 48 hours. VWF binding, the effective lifetime of ARC1779, platelet post-transfusion recovery and survival, and the hemostatic function were measured. ARC1779 treatment during refrigeration inhibited the platelet-VWF interaction. ARC1779-treated refrigerated murine platelets exhibited increased post-transfusion recovery and survival than untreated ones (recovery of ARC1779-treated platelets: 76.7±5.5%; untreated: 63.7±0.8%; P<0.01. Half-life: 31.4±2.36 hours versus 28.1±0.86 hours; P<0.05). A similar increase was observed for refrigerated human platelets (recovery: 49.4±4.4% versus 36.8±2.1%, P<0.01; half-life: 9.2±1.5 hours versus 8.7±0.9 hours, ns). The effective lifetime of ARC1779 in mice was 2 hours. Additionally, ARC1779 improved the long-term (2 hours after transfusion) hemostatic function of refrigerated platelets (tail bleeding time of mice transfused with ARC1779-treated refrigerated platelets: 160±65 seconds; untreated: 373±96 seconds; P<0.01). The addition of an ARC1779 antidote before transfusion improved the immediate (15 minutes after transfusion) hemostatic function (bleeding time of treated platelets: 149±21 seconds; untreated: 320±36 seconds; P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS:ARC1779 improves the post-transfusion recovery of refrigerated platelets and preserves the long-term hemostatic function of refrigerated platelets. These results suggest that a short-acting inhibitor of the platelet-VWF interaction may be a potential therapeutic option to improve refrigeration of platelets for transfusion treatment.
Project description:Thrombocytosis and platelet hyperreactivity are known to be associated with malignancy; however, there have been no ultrastructure studies of platelets from patients with ovarian cancer. Here, we used electron cryotomography (cryo-ET) to examine frozen-hydrated platelets from patients with invasive ovarian cancer (n = 12) and control subjects either with benign adnexal mass (n = 5) or free from disease (n = 6). Qualitative inspections of the tomograms indicate significant morphological differences between the cancer and control platelets, including disruption of the microtubule marginal band. Quantitative analysis of subcellular features in 120 platelet electron tomograms from these two groups showed statistically significant differences in mitochondria, as well as microtubules. These structural variations in the platelets from the patients with cancer may be correlated with the altered platelet functions associated with malignancy. Cryo-ET of platelets shows potential as a noninvasive biomarker technology for ovarian cancer and other platelet-related diseases.
Project description:Importance:Pathogen reduction of platelet concentrates may reduce transfusion-transmitted infections but is associated with qualitative impairment, which could have clinical significance with regard to platelet hemostatic capacity. Objective:To compare the effectiveness of platelets in additive solution treated with amotosalen-UV-A vs untreated platelets in plasma or in additive solution in patients with thrombocytopenia and hematologic malignancies. Design, Setting, and Participants:The Evaluation of the Efficacy of Platelets Treated With Pathogen Reduction Process (EFFIPAP) study was a randomized, noninferiority, 3-arm clinical trial performed from May 16, 2013, through January 21, 2016, at 13 French tertiary university hospitals. Clinical signs of bleeding were assessed daily until the end of aplasia, transfer to another department, need for a specific platelet product, or 30 days after enrollment. Consecutive adult patients with bone marrow aplasia, expected hospital stay of more than 10 days, and expected need of platelet transfusions were included. Interventions:At least 1 transfusion of platelets in additive solution with amotosalen-UV-A treatment, in plasma, or in additive solution. Main Outcomes and Measures:The proportion of patients with grade 2 or higher bleeding as defined by World Health Organization criteria. Results:Among 790 evaluable patients (mean [SD] age, 55 [13.4] years; 458 men [58.0%]), the primary end point was observed in 126 receiving pathogen-reduced platelets in additive solution (47.9%; 95% CI, 41.9%-54.0%), 114 receiving platelets in plasma (43.5%; 95% CI, 37.5%-49.5%), and 120 receiving platelets in additive solution (45.3%; 95% CI, 39.3%-51.3%). With a per-protocol population with a prespecified margin of 12.5%, noninferiority was not achieved when pathogen-reduced platelets in additive solution were compared with platelets in plasma (4.4%; 95% CI, -4.1% to 12.9%) but was achieved when the pathogen-reduced platelets were compared with platelets in additive solution (2.6%; 95% CI, -5.9% to 11.1%). The proportion of patients with grade 3 or 4 bleeding was not different among treatment arms. Conclusions and Relevance:Although the hemostatic efficacy of pathogen-reduced platelets in thrombopenic patients with hematologic malignancies was noninferior to platelets in additive solution, such noninferiority was not achieved when comparing pathogen-reduced platelets with platelets in plasma. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01789762.
Project description:The platelet storage lesion accelerates platelet clearance after transfusion, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Although inhibiting sheddase activity hampers clearance of platelets with storage lesion, the target platelet protein responsible for ectodomain shedding-induced clearance is not definitively identified. Monoclonal antibody 5G6 was developed recently to bind specifically human platelet receptor glycoprotein (GP)Ib? and inhibit its shedding but not shedding of other receptors. Here, the role of GPIb? shedding in platelet clearance after transfusion was addressed.Both human leukoreduced apheresis-derived platelets and transgenic mouse platelets expressing human GPIb? were stored at room temperature in the presence and absence of 5G6 Fab fragment. At various time points, aliquots of stored platelets were analyzed and compared. 5G6 Fab inhibited GPIb? shedding in both platelets during storage and preserved higher level of GPIb? on the platelet surface. Compared with age-matched control platelets, 5G6 Fab-stored platelets exhibited similar levels of platelet activation, degranulation, and agonist-induced aggregation. 5G6 Fab-stored human GPIb? platelets exhibited significantly higher post-transfusion recovery and in vivo hemostatic function in recipient mice than control platelets. Consistently, 5G6 Fab-stored, 8-day-old human platelets produced similar improvement in post-transfusion recovery in immunodeficient mice and in ex vivo thrombus formation over collagen under shear flow.Specific inhibition of GPIb? shedding in the stored platelets improves post-transfusion platelet recovery and hemostatic function, providing clear evidence for GPIb? shedding as a cause of platelet clearance. These results suggest that specific inhibition of GPIb? shedding may be used to optimize platelet storage conditions.
Project description:Platelets express ?2 members of the regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) family. Here, we have focused on the most abundant, RGS10, examining its impact on the hemostatic response in vivo and the mechanisms involved. We have previously shown that the hemostatic thrombi formed in response to penetrating injuries consist of a core of fully activated densely packed platelets overlaid by a shell of less-activated platelets responding to adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) and thromboxane A2 (TxA2). Hemostatic thrombi formed in RGS10-/- mice were larger than in controls, with the increase due to expansion of the shell but not the core. Clot retraction was slower, and average packing density was reduced. Deleting RGS10 had agonist-specific effects on signaling. There was a leftward shift in the dose/response curve for the thrombin receptor (PAR4) agonist peptide AYPGKF but no increase in the maximum response. This contrasted with ADP and TxA2, both of which evoked considerably greater maximum responses in RGS10-/- platelets with enhanced Gq- and Gi-mediated signaling. Shape change, which is G13-mediated, was unaffected. Finally, we found that free RGS10 levels in platelets are actively regulated. In resting platelets, RGS10 was bound to 2 scaffold proteins: spinophilin and 14-3-3?. Platelet activation caused an increase in free RGS10, as did the endothelium-derived platelet antagonist prostacyclin. Collectively, these observations show that RGS10 serves as an actively regulated node on the platelet signaling network, helping to produce smaller and more densely packed hemostatic thrombi with a greater proportion of fully activated platelets.
Project description:Trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) is a complex, multifactorial failure of hemostasis that occurs in 25% of severely injured patients and results in a fourfold higher mortality. However, the role of platelets in this state remains poorly understood. We set out to identify molecular changes that may underpin platelet dysfunction after major injury and to determine how they relate to coagulopathy and outcome. We performed a range of hemostatic and platelet-specific studies in blood samples obtained from critically injured patients within 2 hours of injury and collected prospective data on patient characteristics and clinical outcomes. We observed that, although platelet counts were preserved above critical levels, circulating platelets sampled from trauma patients exhibited a profoundly reduced response to both collagen and the selective glycoprotein VI (GPVI) agonist collagen-related peptide, compared with those from healthy volunteers. These responses correlated closely with overall clot strength and mortality. Surface expression of the collagen receptors GPIb? and GPVI was reduced on circulating platelets in trauma patients, with increased levels of the shed ectodomain fragment of GPVI detectable in plasma. Levels of shed GPVI were highest in patients with more severe injuries and TIC. Collectively, these observations demonstrate that platelets experience a loss of GPVI and GPIb? after severe injury and translate into a reduction in the responsiveness of platelets during active hemorrhage. In turn, they are associated with reduced hemostatic competence and increased mortality. Targeting proteolytic shedding of platelet receptors is a potential therapeutic strategy for maintaining hemostatic competence in bleeding and improving the efficacy of platelet transfusions.
Project description:The local microenvironment within an evolving hemostatic plug shapes the distribution of soluble platelet agonists, resulting in a gradient of platelet activation. We previously showed that thrombin activity at a site of vascular injury is spatially restricted, resulting in robust activation of a subpopulation of platelets in the hemostatic plug core. In contrast, adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)/P2Y12 signaling contributes to the accumulation of partially activated, loosely packed platelets in a shell overlying the core. The contribution of the additional platelet agonists thromboxane A2 (TxA2) and epinephrine to this hierarchical organization was not previously shown. Using a combination of genetic and pharmacologic approaches coupled with real-time intravital imaging, we show that TxA2 signaling is critical and nonredundant with ADP/P2Y12 for platelet accumulation in the shell region but not required for full platelet activation in the hemostatic plug core, where thrombin activity is highest. In contrast, epinephrine signaling is dispensable even in the presence of a P2Y12 antagonist. Finally, dual P2Y12 and thrombin inhibition does not substantially inhibit hemostatic plug core formation any more than thrombin inhibition alone, providing further evidence that thrombin is the primary driver of platelet activation in this region. Taken together, these studies show for the first time how thrombin, P2Y12, and TxA2 signaling are coordinated during development of a hierarchical organization of hemostatic plugs in vivo and provide novel insights into the impact of dual antiplatelet therapy on hemostasis and thrombosis.