Project description:Proteomic analysis of cytokines in unstimulated oropharyngeal secretions. Epstein-barr virus (EBV) is a type 1 carcinogen which causes many cancers in humans. Here we explored the cytokine involvement of the EBV replication process in the oropharynx. Cytokine interactomic profiles were geneerated to understand the involved signalling pathways in HIV infected group and the healthy group. Proteome profilers were used to understand the major cytokine expression levels that are related to infection and immune regulation. We analyzed unstimulated oropharyngeal samples (UOPS) from 42 healthy subjects and 72 HIV positive subjects using the R & D Proteome Profiler array panels. No techinical replicates were performed. 14 samples in HIV group without therapy (NHAART group); 58 HIV patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART group); 42 samples in healthy group
Project description:Proteomic analysis of cytokines in unstimulated oropharyngeal secretions. Epstein-barr virus (EBV) is a type 1 carcinogen which causes many cancers in humans. Here we explored the cytokine involvement of the EBV replication process in the oropharynx. Cytokine interactomic profiles were geneerated to understand the involved signalling pathways in HIV infected group and the healthy group. Proteome profilers were used to understand the major cytokine expression levels that are related to infection and immune regulation. Overall design: We analyzed unstimulated oropharyngeal samples (UOPS) from 42 healthy subjects and 72 HIV positive subjects using the R & D Proteome Profiler array panels. No techinical replicates were performed. 14 samples in HIV group without therapy (NHAART group); 58 HIV patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART group); 42 samples in healthy group
Project description:Multiple viruses coinfect the male genital tract, influencing each other’s replication and perhaps affecting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis and disease progression.This study included 453 longitudinal seminal samples from 195 HIV-infected men from the San Diego Primary Infection Resource Consortium and 67 seminal samples from HIV-negative healthy controls. Seminal HIV RNA and DNA from 7 human herpesviruses (HHVs) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Longitudinal shedding rates were determined by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Predictors of viral shedding were determined using backwards selection in a multivariable generalized estimating equation model.HIV-infected participants presented significantly increased rates of seminal HHV shedding compared with HIV-uninfected controls. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were the most commonly detected HHV in semen of HIV-infected participants. Persistent shedding was more common for CMV and EBV when compared to other HHVs. With exception of HHV-7, HHV shedding was not significantly influenced by HIV RNA levels, CD4+ cell counts, or antiretroviral therapy. Presence of CMV, EBV, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) were independent predictors of genital HIV RNA shedding after adjusting for plasma HIV RNA and longitudinal measurements.Seminal replication of multiple HHVs is common in our HIV primary infection cohort. Genital replication of CMV and EBV was the most common and was significantly associated with seminal HIV RNA shedding. Prevalence of HSV shedding was lower and mostly intermittent, but its association with seminal HIV RNA was the strongest. Understanding the complex viral milieu in semen is important for HIV transmission but might also play a role in HIV pathogenesis and disease progression.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in breast milk and subclinical mastitis (SCM) are both associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shedding and possibly with postnatal HIV transmission. The objective of this nested case-control study was to investigate the interplay between SCM and EBV replication in breast milk of HIV-infected mothers.The relationships between EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) shedding, HIV-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) level, and SCM were explored in breast milk samples of Zambian mothers participating in the ANRS 12174 trial. Mammary gland inflammation was defined as a breast milk sodium to potassium ratio (Na/K) greater than 0.6 and further subclassified as either "possible SCM" (Na/K ratio 0.6-1.0) or SCM (Na/K ratio ≥ 1.0). Breast milk interleukin 8 (IL-8) was measured as a surrogate marker of mammary gland inflammation.EBV DNA was detected in breast milk samples from 42 out of 83 (51%) participants and was associated with HIV-1 shedding in breast milk (P = 0.006). EBV DNA levels were higher in samples with SCM and "possible SCM" compared to non-SCM breast milk samples (P = 0.06; P = 0.007). An EBV DNA level of >200 copies/mL was independently associated with SCM and "possible SCM" (OR: 2.62; 95%: 1.13-6.10). In patients with SCM, higher EBV replication in the mammary gland was associated with a lower induction of IL-8 (P = 0.013). Resistance to DNase treatment suggests that EBV DNA in lactoserum is encapsidated.SCM and decreased IL-8 responses are associated with an increased EBV shedding in breast milk which may in turn facilitate HIV replication in the mammary gland.
Project description:Semen is the main carrier of sexually transmitted viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, semen is not just a mere passive transporter of virions but also plays an active role in HIV-1 transmission through cytokines and other biological factors.To study the relationship between viruses and the chemokine-cytokine network in the male genital tract, we measured the concentrations of 21 cytokines/chemokines and the loads of HIV-1 and of 6 herpesviruses in seminal and blood plasma from HIV-1-infected and HIV-uninfected men.We found that (1) semen is enriched in cytokines and chemokines that play key roles in HIV-1 infection or transmission; (2) HIV-1 infection changes the chemokine-cytokine network in semen, further enriching it in cytokines that modulate its replication; (3) HIV-1 infection is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) compartmentalized seminal reactivation; (4) CMV and EBV concomitant seminal shedding is associated with higher HIV-1 loads in blood and seminal plasma; and (5) CMV seminal reactivation increases the seminal levels of the CCR5 ligands RANTES and eotaxin, and of the CXCR3 ligand monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG).HIV-1 infection results in an aberrant production of cytokines and reactivation of EBV and CMV that further changes the seminal cytokine network. The altered seminal milieu in HIV-1 infection may be a determinant of HIV-1 sexual transmission.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is implicated in the pathogenesis of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). EBV-associated cancers harbor a latent EBV infection characterized by a lack of viral replication and the expression of viral oncogenes. Cellular changes promoted by HPV are comparable to those shown to facilitate EBV latency, though whether HPV-positive cells support a latent EBV infection has not been demonstrated. Using a model of direct EBV infection into HPV16-immortalized tonsillar cells grown in organotypic raft culture, we showed robust EBV replication in HPV-negative rafts but little to no replication in HPV-immortalized rafts. The reduced EBV replication was independent of immortalization, as human telomerase-immortalized normal oral keratinocytes supported robust EBV replication. Furthermore, we observed reduced EBV lytic gene expression and increased expression of EBER1, a noncoding RNA highly expressed in latently infected cells, in the presence of HPV. The use of human foreskin keratinocyte rafts expressing the HPV16 E6 and/or E7 oncogene(s) (HPV E6 and E7 rafts) showed that E7 was sufficient to reduce EBV replication. EBV replication is dependent upon epithelial differentiation and the differentiation-dependent expression of the transcription factors KLF4 and PRDM1. While KLF4 and PRDM1 levels were unaltered, the expression levels of KLF4 transcriptional targets, including late differentiation markers, were reduced in HPV E6 and E7 rafts compared to their levels in parental rafts. However, the HPV E7-mediated block in EBV replication correlated with delayed expression of early differentiation markers. Overall, this study reveals an HPV16-mediated block in EBV replication, through E7, that may facilitate EBV latency and long-term persistence in the tumor context.IMPORTANCE Using a model examining the establishment of EBV infection in HPV-immortalized tissues, we showed an HPV-induced interruption of the normal EBV life cycle reminiscent of a latent EBV infection. Our data support the notion that a persistent EBV epithelial infection depends upon preexisting cellular alterations and suggest the ability of HPV to promote such changes. More importantly, these findings introduce a model for how EBV coinfection may influence HPV-positive (HPV-pos) OSCC pathogenesis. Latently EBV-infected epithelial cells, as well as other EBV-associated head-and-neck carcinomas, exhibit oncogenic phenotypes commonly seen in HPV-pos OSCC. Therefore, an HPV-induced shift in the EBV life cycle toward latency would not only facilitate EBV persistence but also provide additional viral oncogene expression, which can contribute to the rapid progression of HPV-pos OSCC. These findings provide a step toward defining a role for EBV as a cofactor in HPV-positive oropharyngeal tumors.
Project description:Human herpesvirus (HHV) infections are common during infancy. Primary infections are frequently asymptomatic and best studied prospectively by using direct viral detection.Oropharyngeal swab specimens were collected weekly from Ugandan newborn infants, their mothers, and other children in the household. Blood specimens were collected every 4 months. Samples were tested for herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-8, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction.Thirty-two infants, 32 mothers, and 49 other household children were followed for a median of 57 weeks. Seventeen mothers had human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection; no infants acquired HIV-1. The 12-month incidence of postnatal infection was 76% for HHV-6B, 59% for CMV, 47% for EBV, 8% for HSV-1, and 0% for HHV-8. The quantity of oropharyngeal shedding by contacts was associated with HHV-6A or HHV-6B transmission. Maternal HIV-1 infection was associated with EBV transmission, while breastfeeding and younger child contacts were associated with CMV transmission. Except for HSV-1, primary HHV infections were subclinical.By capturing exposures and acquisition events, we found that the incidence and risk factors of infection vary by HHV type. HSV-1 infection, unlike other HHV infections, caused acute clinical illness in these infants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This longitudinal study described Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA, Epstein-Barr (EBV) DNA and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA asymptomatic salivary shedding in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). We aimed to 1-analyze frequency and persistence of herpesvirus shedding, 2-correlate herpesvirus positivity and HIV viroimmunological parameters and 3-assess the association between HIV-RNA suppression and herpesvirus replication. METHODS:Herpesvirus DNA was tested with an in-house real-time PCR in 2 salivary samples obtained at T0 and T1 (24 months after T0). HIV-RNA was evaluated in the 24 months prior to T0 and in the 24 months prior to T1; MSM were classified as successfully suppressed patients (SSPs), viremic patients (VPs) and partially suppressed patients (PSPs). EBV DNA load was classified as low viral load (EBV-LVL, value ≤10,000 copies/ml) and as high viral load (EBV-HVL,> 10,000 copies/ml). Mann-Whitney U test tested the difference of the median between groups of patients. Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test compared categorical variables according to the frequencies. Kruskal-Wallis test compared continuous data distributions between levels of categorical variables. RESULTS:Ninety-two patients (median CD4+ count 575 cells/mm3, median nadir 330 CD4+ cells/mm3) were included: 40 SSPs,33 VPs and 19 PSPs. The more frequently single virus detected was EBV, both at T0 and at T1 (in 67.5 and 70% of SSPs, in 84.8 and 81.8% of VPs and in 68.4 and 73.7% of SPSs) and the most frequently multiple positivity detected was EBV + HHV-8. At T1, the percentage of CMV positivity was higher in VPs than in SSPs (36.4% vs 5%, p < 0.001), the combined shedding of HHV-8, CMV and EBV was present only in VPs (15.1%, p = 0.01 respect to SSPs) and no VPs confirmed the absence of shedding found at T0 (vs 17.5% of SSPs, p = 0.01). EBV-HVL was more frequent in VPs than in SSPs: 78.6% at T0 (p = 0.03) and 88.9% at T1 (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:The relationship between uncontrolled plasma HIV viremia and CMV, EBV, and HHV-8 shedding is multifaceted, as demonstrated by the focused association with EBV DNA load and not with its frequency and by the persistent combined detection of two oncogenic viruses as EBV and HHV-8 regardless of HIV virological control.
Project description:Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) can co-exist in pharyngeal and cervical malignancies. However, the natural history and factors associated with persistent HPV infection among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) are unclear.131 HIV-infected MSM were followed for 48 weeks and screened for multiple co-infections, including seminal EBV DNA and high risk (HR)-HPV messenger RNA (mRNA) at several sites (semen, anal, pharynx). Primary analysis tested if seminal EBV shedding was associated with increased prevalence of HR-HPV at baseline using univariate tests and multivariable logistic regression. In participants with detectable anal HR-HPV at baseline, we tested if presence of seminal EBV shedding at baseline was also predictive of reduced HR-HPV clearance by log-rank test (over 48 weeks of follow-up).Baseline prevalence of HR-HPV was: anal 44% (N = 54/121); pharynx 3.8% (N = 5/131); semen 7.1% (N = 7/98). Seminal EBV shedding was present in 28% of participants and was associated with more than double the prevalence of detectable anal HR-HPV mRNA (71.4% for EBV shedders versus 33.3% for non-shedders, p < 0.01). In participants with detectable anal HR-HPV at baseline, we found increased persistence of HR-HPV over 48 weeks of follow-up (measured as time to first negative HR-HPV test in the EBV shedding group (p < 0.01).Seminal EBV shedding was associated with an increased risk of having detectable anal HR-HPV in a cohort of HIV-infected MSM on suppressive ART. Future studies should examine if co-infection with EBV and HR-HPV may act synergistically in pathogenesis of anal cancer in HIV-infected individuals.
Project description:We evaluated the subclinical shedding of six different herpesviruses in antiretroviral drug-treated HIV-positive [HIV(+)] MSM, and determined how this is associated with markers of inflammation and immune activation.We obtained blood, semen, throat washing, urine, and stool from 15 antiretroviral-treated HIV-1-infected MSM with CD4 T-cell reconstitution, and 12 age-matched HIV-negative [HIV (-)] MSM from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study at four timepoints over 24 weeks to measure DNA levels of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6), and HHV8. T-cell activation and plasma levels of soluble markers of inflammation and activation were also measured at the corresponding timepoints.HIV(+) participants had a trend for higher total herpesvirus shedding rate. HIV(+) participants also had a significantly higher rate of shedding EBV and CMV compared with the HIV(-) group. Herpesvirus shedding was mostly seen in throat washings. In the HIV(+) group, herpesvirus shedding rate inversely correlated with plasma levels of interferon ?-induced protein 10 and soluble CD163. CMV DNA levels negatively correlated with levels of T-cell activation. There was a trend for a positive correlation between EBV shedding rate and plasma soluble CD14. HHV6 shedding rate negatively correlated with plasma levels of interleukin-6, soluble CD163, and interferon gamma-induced protein 10. Correlations were not observed among HIV(-) individuals.Among treated HIV-infected MSM, there are higher subclinical shedding rates of some herpesviruses that occur in different body compartments and negatively correlate with levels of inflammation and immune activation.