¬¬Identifying the cellular interactome of Epstein-Barr virus lytic regulator Zta reveals cellular targets contributing to viral replication.
ABSTRACT: The human gamma herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus, infects most adults and is an important contributor to the development of many types of cancer. Essential contributions of viral genes to replication are known but the potential contributions of cell genes to viral replication are less well delineated. A key player is the viral protein Zta (BZLF1, ZEBRA, Z). This sequence-specific DNA-binding protein can disrupt viral latency by driving the transcription of target genes and by interacting with the EBV lytic origin of replication. Here we used an unbiased approach to identify the Zta-interactome in cells derived from a Burkitt’s lymphoma. Isolating Zta and associated proteins from Burkitt’s lymphoma cells undergoing EBV replication, followed by Tandem Mass Tag (TMT) mass spectrometry resulted in the identification of forty-four viral and cellular proteins in the Zta interactome. Of these two were known targets of Zta. The association of Zta with Hsc70 and the contribution that Hsc70 plays to EBV replication mirrors a contribution from HSP70 family members to the replication of other herpesviruses. Conversely, the association of Zta with NFATc2 has no known parallels for other herpesviruses. Zta attenuates the activity of an NFAT-dependent promoter, which shows a potential for dampening the expression of genes regulated by calcium-dependent signal transduction. Indeed, Zta has the ability to affect a feed-back loop limiting its own expression, which would aid viral replication by preventing the toxic effects of Zta overexpression.
Project description:The working model to describe the mechanisms used to replicate the cancer-associated virus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is partly derived from comparisons with other members of the Herpes virus family. Many genes within the EBV genome are homologous across the herpes virus family. Published transcriptome data for the EBV genome during its lytic replication cycle show extensive transcription, but the identification of the proteins is limited. We have taken a global proteomics approach to identify viral proteins that are expressed during the EBV lytic replication cycle. We combined an enrichment method to isolate cells undergoing EBV lytic replication with SILAC-labeling coupled to mass-spectrometry and identified viral and host proteins expressed during the OPEN ACCESS Pathogens 2015, 4 740 EBV lytic replication cycle. Amongst the most frequently identified viral proteins are two components of the DNA replication machinery, the single strand DNA binding protein BALF2, DNA polymerase accessory protein BMRF1 and both subunits of the viral ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase enzyme (BORF2 and BaRF1). An additional 42 EBV lytic cycle proteins were also detected. This provides proteomic identification for many EBV lytic replication cycle proteins and also identifies post-translational modifications.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus lytic replication is accomplished by an intricate cascade of gene expression that integrates viral DNA replication and structural protein synthesis. Most genes encoding structural proteins exhibit "true" late kinetics-their expression is strictly dependent on lytic DNA replication. Recently, the EBV BcRF1 gene was reported to encode a TATA box binding protein homolog, which preferentially recognizes the TATT sequence found in true late gene promoters. BcRF1 is one of seven EBV genes with homologs found in other ?- and ?-, but not in ?-herpesviruses. Using EBV BACmids, we systematically disrupted each of these "??" genes. We found that six of them, including BcRF1, exhibited an identical phenotype: intact viral DNA replication with loss of late gene expression. The proteins encoded by these six genes have been found by other investigators to form a viral protein complex that is essential for activation of TATT-containing reporters in EBV-negative 293 cells. Unexpectedly, in EBV infected 293 cells, we found that TATT reporter activation was weak and non-specific unless an EBV origin of lytic replication (OriLyt) was present in cis. Using two different replication-defective EBV genomes, we demonstrated that OriLyt-mediated DNA replication is required in cis for TATT reporter activation and for late gene expression from the EBV genome. We further demonstrate by fluorescence in situ hybridization that the late BcLF1 mRNA localizes to EBV DNA replication factories. These findings support a model in which EBV true late genes are only transcribed from newly replicated viral genomes.
Project description:Regular blood transfusion is the cornerstone of care for patients with red blood cell (RBC) disorders such as thalassemia or sickle cell disease. With repeated transfusion, alloimmunisation often occurs due to incompatibility at the level of minor blood group antigens. We use CRISPR-mediated genome editing of an immortalised human erythroblast cell line (BEL-A) to generate multiple enucleation competent cell lines deficient in individual blood groups. Edits are combined to generate a single cell line deficient in multiple antigens responsible for the most common transfusion incompatibilities: ABO (Bombay phenotype), Rh (Rhnull), Kell (K0), Duffy (Duffynull), GPB (S- s- U-). These cells can be differentiated to generate deformable reticulocytes, illustrating the capacity for coexistence of multiple rare blood group antigen null phenotypes. This study provides the first proof-of-principle demonstration of combinatorial CRISPR-mediated blood group gene editing to generate customisable or multi-compatible RBCs for diagnostic reagents or recipients with complicated matching requirements.
Project description:Protein trafficking requires coat complexes that couple recognition of sorting motifs in transmembrane cargos with biogenesis of transport carriers. The mechanisms of cargo transport through the endosomal network are poorly understood. Here, we identify a sorting motif for endosomal recycling of cargos including the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor and semaphorin 4C by the membrane tubulating BAR domain-containing sorting nexins SNX5 and SNX6. Crystal structures establish that this motif folds into a β-hairpin that binds a site in the SNX5/SNX6 phox homology domains. Over sixty cargos share this motif and require SNX5/SNX6 for their recycling. These include cargos involved in neuronal migration and a Drosophila snx6 mutant displays defects in axonal guidance. These studies identify a sorting motif and provide molecular insight into an evolutionary conserved coat complex, the ‘Endosomal SNX-BAR sorting complex for promoting exit 1’ (ESCPE-1), which couples sorting motif recognition to BAR domain-mediated biogenesis of cargo-enriched tubulo-vesicular transport carriers.
Project description:Platelets are small, anucleate cells that play an essential role in haemostasis, but can contribute critically to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Platelets express all four Class I Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) isoforms, with previous work revealing important roles for these enzymes in regulating platelet priming, activation and stable thrombus formation. Despite this, detailed mechanistic understanding of how these lipid kinases orchestrate these roles in platelets is limited. Class I PI3Ks predominantly regulate cell function through their catalytic product, the signalling phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), which coordinates the localisation and/or activity of a diverse range of binding proteins. The complete repertoire of these Class I PI3K effectors in platelets remains unknown, hampering current understanding of Class I PI3K-mediated regulation of platelet function. We therefore conducted a global, unbiased screen for PIP3-binding proteins in human platelets using affinity capture coupled to high resolution proteomic mass spectrometry. Thus, we present the first in depth analysis of the PIP3 signalosome of human platelets, revealing an extensive PIP3 interactome, including many proteins previously uncharacterised in this cell type. This work provides important new insights into how Class I PI3K shapes human platelet function.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BKRF3 shares sequence homology with members of the uracil-N-glycosylase (UNG) protein family and has DNA glycosylase activity. Here, we explored how BKRF3 participates in the DNA replication complex and contributes to viral DNA replication. Exogenously expressed Flag-BKRF3 was distributed mostly in the cytoplasm, whereas BKRF3 was translocated into the nucleus and colocalized with the EBV DNA polymerase BALF5 in the replication compartment during EBV lytic replication. The expression level of BKRF3 increased gradually during viral replication, coupled with a decrease of cellular UNG2, suggesting BKRF3 enzyme activity compensates for UNG2 and ensures the fidelity of viral DNA replication. In immunoprecipitation-Western blotting, BKRF3 was coimmuno-precipitated with BALF5, the polymerase processivity factor BMRF1, and the immediate-early transactivator Rta. Coexpression of BMRF1 appeared to facilitate the nuclear targeting of BKRF3 in immunofluorescence staining. Residues 164 to 255 of BKRF3 were required for interaction with Rta and BALF5, whereas residues 81 to 166 of BKRF3 were critical for BMRF1 interaction in glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown experiments. Viral DNA replication was defective in cells harboring BKRF3 knockout EBV bacmids. In complementation assays, the catalytic mutant BKRF3(Q90L,D91N) restored viral DNA replication, whereas the leucine loop mutant BKRF3(H213L) only partially rescued viral DNA replication, coupled with a reduced ability to interact with the viral DNA polymerase and Rta. Our data suggest that BKRF3 plays a critical role in viral DNA synthesis predominantly through its interactions with viral proteins in the DNA replication compartment, while its enzymatic activity may be supplementary for uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) function during virus replication.Catalytic activities of both cellular UDG UNG2 and viral UDGs contribute to herpesviral DNA replication. To ensure that the enzyme activity executes at the right time and the right place in DNA replication forks, complex formation with other components in the DNA replication machinery provides an important regulation for UDG function. In this study, we provide the mechanism for EBV UDG BKRF3 nuclear targeting and the interacting domains of BKRF3 with viral DNA replication proteins. Through knockout and complementation approaches, we further demonstrate that in addition to UDG activity, the interaction of BKRF3 with viral proteins in the replication compartment is crucial for efficient viral DNA replication.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects human B cells and reprograms them to allow virus replication and persistence. One key viral factor in this process is latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A), which has been described as a B cell receptor (BCR) mimic promoting malignant transformation. However, how LMP2A signaling contributes to tumorigenesis remains elusive. By systematically comparing LMP2A and BCR signaling using quantitative phosphoproteomics and transcriptome profiling, we identified molecular mechanisms through which LMP2A affects B cell biology. Consistent with previous literature, we found that LMP2A mimics a subset of BCR signaling events, including tyrosine-phosphorylation of the kinase SYK, the calcium initiation complex consisting of BLNK, BTK, PLC2, and its downstream transcription factor NFAT. However, the vast majority of LMP2A-induced signaling events markedly differed from those induced by BCR stimulation. These included differential phosphorylation of kinases, phosphatases, adaptor proteins, transcription factors such as NFB and TCF3, as well as widespread changes in the transcriptional output of LMP2A-expressing B cells. LMP2A affected apoptosis and cell cycle checkpoints by dysregulating the expression of apoptosis regulators such as Bcl-xL and the tumor suppressor retinoblastoma-associated protein (RB1). Accordingly, LMP2A cooperated with drivers of Burkitt lymphoma, overexpressed MYC and an oncogenic cyclin D3 mutant, by counteracting the pro-apoptotic effects of MYC and by further inhibiting RB1 function to promote cell growth. Our results indicate that LMP2A rewires rather than mimics BCR signaling, promoting a signaling output that predisposes EBV-infected B cells to hyperproliferation and eventual malignant transformation.
Project description:Epstein Barr virus (EBV), like other oncogenic viruses, modulates the activity of cellular DNA damage responses (DDR) during its life cycle. Our aim was to characterize the role of early lytic proteins and viral lytic DNA replication in activation of DNA damage signaling during the EBV lytic cycle. Our data challenge the prevalent hypothesis that activation of DDR pathways during the EBV lytic cycle occurs solely in response to large amounts of exogenous double stranded DNA products generated during lytic viral DNA replication. In immunofluorescence or immunoblot assays, DDR activation markers, specifically phosphorylated ATM (pATM), H2AX (?H2AX), or 53BP1 (p53BP1), were induced in the presence or absence of viral DNA amplification or replication compartments during the EBV lytic cycle. In assays with an ATM inhibitor and DNA damaging reagents in Burkitt lymphoma cell lines, ?H2AX induction was necessary for optimal expression of early EBV genes, but not sufficient for lytic reactivation. Studies in lytically reactivated EBV-positive cells in which early EBV proteins, BGLF4, BGLF5, or BALF2, were not expressed showed that these proteins were not necessary for DDR activation during the EBV lytic cycle. Expression of ZEBRA, a viral protein that is necessary for EBV entry into the lytic phase, induced pATM foci and ?H2AX independent of other EBV gene products. ZEBRA mutants deficient in DNA binding, Z(R183E) and Z(S186E), did not induce foci of pATM. ZEBRA co-localized with HP1?, a heterochromatin associated protein involved in DNA damage signaling. We propose a model of DDR activation during the EBV lytic cycle in which ZEBRA induces ATM kinase phosphorylation, in a DNA binding dependent manner, to modulate gene expression. ATM and H2AX phosphorylation induced prior to EBV replication may be critical for creating a microenvironment of viral and cellular gene expression that enables lytic cycle progression.
Project description:During the lytic phase of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), binding of the transactivator Zta to the origin of lytic replication (oriLyt) and the BHLF1 transcript, forming a stable RNA-DNA hybrid, is required to initiate viral DNA replication. EBV-encoded viral DNA replication proteins form complexes to amplify viral DNA. BMRF1, the viral DNA polymerase accessory factor, is essential for lytic DNA replication and also known as a transcriptional regulator of the expression of BHLF1 and BALF2 (single-stranded DNA [ssDNA]-binding protein). In order to determine systematically how BMRF1 regulates viral transcription, a BMRF1 knockout bacmid was generated to analyze viral gene expression using a viral DNA microarray. We found that a subset of Rta-responsive late genes, including BcLF1, BLLF1, BLLF2, and BDLF3, were downregulated in cells harboring a BMRF1 knockout EBV bacmid (p2089?BMRF1). In reporter assays, BMRF1 appears to transactivate a subset of viral late promoters through distinct pathways. BMRF1 activates the BDLF3 promoter in an SP1-dependent manner. Notably, BMRF1 associates with the transcriptional regulator BRG1 in EBV-reactivated cells. BMRF1-mediated transactivation activities on the BcLF1 and BLLF1 promoters were attenuated by knockdown of BRG1. In BRG1-depleted EBV-reactivated cells, BcLF1 and BLLF1 transcripts were reduced in number, resulting in reduced virion secretion. BMRF1 and BRG1 bound to the adjacent upstream regions of the BcLF1 and BLLF1 promoters, and depletion of BRG1 attenuated the recruitment of BMRF1 onto both promoters, suggesting that BRG1 is involved in BMRF1-mediated regulation of these two genes. Overall, we reveal a novel pathway by which BMRF1 can regulate viral promoters through interaction with BRG1.IMPORTANCE The cascade of viral gene expression during Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) replication is exquisitely regulated by the coordination of the viral DNA replication machinery and cellular factors. Upon lytic replication, the EBV immediate early proteins Zta and Rta turn on the expression of early proteins that assemble into viral DNA replication complexes. The DNA polymerase accessory factor, BMRF1, also is known to transactivate early gene expression through its interaction with SP1 or Zta on specific promoters. Through a global analysis, we demonstrate that BMRF1 also turns on a subset of Rta-regulated, late structural gene promoters. Searching for BMRF1-interacting cellular partners revealed that the SWI/SNF chromatin modifier BRG1 contributes to BMRF1-mediated transactivation of a subset of late promoters through protein-protein interaction and viral chromatin binding. Our findings indicate that BMRF1 regulates the expression of more viral genes than thought previously through distinct viral DNA replication-independent mechanisms.